ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1042 pp., 2005

Adachi, K., Chung, S. H., and Buseck, P. R.: Shapes of soot aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D15206, doi:10.1029/2009JD012868, 2010.

AMAP. The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate (2011). By: P.K. Quinn, A. Stohl, A. Arneth, T. Berntsen, J. F. Burkhart, J. Christensen, M. Flanner, K. Kupiainen, H. Lihavainen, M. Shepherd, V. Shevchenko, H. Skov, and V. Vestreng. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo. 72 pp, 2011.

Andrea, M. O., and Gelencsér, A.: Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3131– 3148, 2006.

Bahadur, R., Praveen, P. S., Xu, Y., and Ramanathan, V.: Solar absorption by elemental and brown carbon determined from spectral observations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Soc., 109, 17366-17371, 2012.

Bauer, S. E., Menon, S., Koch, D., Bond, T. C., and Tsigaridis, K.: A global modeling study on carbonaceous aerosol microphysical characteristics and radiative effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7439-7456, 2010.

Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J. H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109(D14), 203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697, 2004.

Bond, T. C. and Bergstrom, R. W.: Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 40, 27–67, 2006.

Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S., Roden, C., Streets, D. G., and Trautmann, N. M.: Historical emissions of black carbon and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, Global Biogiochem. Cycl., 21, GB2018, doi: 10.1029/2006GB002840, 1850–2000, 2007.

Bond T.C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey D. W., Forster P. M., Berntsen T., DeAngelo B. J., Flanner M.G., Ghan S., Kärcher B., Koch, D., Kinne S., Kondo Y., Quinn P. K., Sarofim M. C., Schultz M. G., Schulz M., Venkataraman C., Zhang H., Zhang S., Bellouin N., Guttikunda S. K., Hopke P. K., Jacobson M. Z., Kaiser J. W., Klimont Z., Lohmann U., Schwarz J. P., Shindell D., Storelvmo T., Warren S. G., and Zender C. S., (2011) Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. - January 2013 - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, VOL. 118, 1-173, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013

Browse, J., Carslaw, K. S., Arnold, S. R., Pringle, K., and Bourcher, O.: The scavenging processes controlling the seasonal cycle in Arctic sulphate and black carbon aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6775-6798, 2012.

Cappa C.D., Onasch T. B., Massoli P., Worsnop D. R., Bates T. S., Cross E. S., Davidovits P., Hakala J., Hayden K. L., Jobson B. T., Kolesar K. R., Lack D. A., Lerner B. M., Li S-M., Mellon D., Nuaaman I., Olfert J. S., Petäjä T., Quinn P. K., Song C., Subramanian R., Williams E. J., and Zaveri R. A..: Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon, Science, 337, 1078-1081, 2012.

Chen, W.-T., Lee, Y. H., Adams, P. J., Nenes, A., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing? Geophys. Res., Lett., 37, L09801, doi:10.1029/2010GL042886, 2010.

Chung, C. E., Lee, K., and Muller, D.: Effect of internal mixture on black carbon radiative forcing, Tellus, 64B, 10925, doi:10.3042/tellusb.v64i0.10925, 2012.

Clarke, A. D. and Noone, K. J.: Soot in the Arctic snowpack: a cause for perturbations in radiative transfer, Atmos. Environ., 19, 2045–2053, 1985.

Corbett, J. J., Lack, D. A., Winebrake, J. J., Harder, S., Silberman, J. A., and Gold, M.: Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9689-9704, doi:10.5194/acp-10-9689-2010, 2010.

Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A. C. M., van de Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Hólm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kållberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thépaut, J.-N. and Vitart, F.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 137: 553–597. doi: 10.1002/qj.828, 2011.

Flanner, M. G.: Arctic climate sensitivity to local black carbon, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1840-1851, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50176, 2013.

Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Hess, P. G., Mahowald, N. M., Painter, T. H., Ramanathan, V., and Rasch, P. J.: Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2481-2497, 2009.

Flanner, M. G.,. Zender C. S, Randerson J. T., and Rasch P. J., Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow, J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D11), 202, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008003, 2007.

Gettelman, A., Liu, X., Brahona, D., Lohmann, U., and Chen, C.: Climate impacts of ice nucleation, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20201, doi:10.1029/2012JD017950, 2012.

Goldenson, N., Doherty, S. J., Bitz, C. M., Holland, M. M., Light, B., and Conley, A. J.: Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7903-7920, 2012.

Hadley, O.L. and Kirchstetter, T.W.: Black-carbon reduction of snow albedo, Nature Climate Change, 2 (3),, 2012.

Hansen, J. and Nazarenko, L.: Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos, Pr. oc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 101, 423-428, doi: 10.1073/pnas.2237157100.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 996 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007

Jacobson, M. Z. (2001a), Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature, 409, 695-697. 2001.

Jacobson, M. Z.: Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D06205, doi:10.1029/2011JD017218, 2012.

Koch, D. and Del Genio, A. D.: Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7685-7696, 2010.

Koch, D. et al.: Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9001-9026, 2009.

Koch, D. et al.: Soot microphysical effects on liquid clouds, a multi-model investigation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1051-1064, 2011.

Lee, D.S., Pitari, G., Grewe, V., Gierens, K., Penner, J.E., Petzold, A., Prather, M., Schumann, U., Bais, A., Iachetti, D., Berntsen, T., Lim L.L. and Sausen, R.: Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation. Atmospheric Environment, Volume 44, Issue 37, December 2010, Pages 4678-4734, ISSN 1352-2310, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.06.005, 2010.

Liu, J., Fan, S., Horowitz, L. W., and Levy II, H.: Evaluation of factors controlling long-range transport of black carbon to the Arctic, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D04307, doi:10.1029/2010JD015145, 2011.

Moosmüller, H., R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott: Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., 110, 844–878, 2009.

Myhre, G. et al.: Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1853-1877, 2013.

Quinn, P. K., Bates, T. S., Baum, E., Doubleday, N., Fiore, A. M., Flanner, M., Fridlind, A., Garrett, T. J., Koch, D., Menon, S., Shindell, D., Stohl, A., and Warren, S. G.: Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1723–1735, doi:10.5194/acp- 8-1723-2008, 2008.

Quinn, P.K., A. Stohl, A. Arneth, T. Berntsen, J. F. Burkhart, J. Christensen, M. Flanner, K. Kupiainen, H. Lihavainen, M. Shepherd, V. Shevchenko, H. Skov, and V. Vestreng: The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate (2011). Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo. 72 pp, 2011.

Ramanathan, V. and Carmichael, G.: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience, 1, 221-227, 2008.

Reddington, C. L., McMeeking, G., Mann, G. W., Coe, H., Frontoso, M. G., Liu, D., Flynn, M., Spracklen, D. V., and Carslaw, K. S.: The mass and number size distributions of black carbon aerosol over Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4917-4937, 2013.

Riahi K., Rao S., Krey V., Cho C., Chirkov V., Fischer G., Kindermann G., Nakicenovic N., Rafaj P.: RCP 8.5-A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions. Climatic Change. 109:33-57. DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0149-y, 2011.

Riahi, K. Gruebler, A. and Nakicenovic N.: Scenarios of long-term socio-economic and environmental development under climate stabilization. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 74, 7, 887-935, 2007.

Samset B. H. et al.: Black carbon vertical profiles strongly affect its radiative forcing uncertainty, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2423-2434, 2013.

Schwarz, J. P. et al.: Global-scale black carbon profiles observed in the remote atmosphere and compared to models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18812, doi:10.1029/2010GL044372, 2010.

Sharma, S., Ishizawa, M., Dhan, D., Lavoue, D., Andrews, E., Elefheriadis, K., and Maksyutov, S.: 16-year simulation of Arctic black carbon: Transport, source contribution, and sensitivity analysis on deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 943-964, 2013.

Shupe, M. D.: Clouds at the Arctic atmospheric observatories. Part II: Thermodynamic phase characteristics, J. Appl. Meteor. Clim., 50, 645-661, 2011.

Skeie, R. B., Berntsen, T., Myhre, G., Pedersen, C. A., Ström, J., Gerland, S., and Ogren, J. A.: Black carbon in the atmosphere and snow, from pre-industrial times until present, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6809-6836, 2011.

Stier, P., Feichter, J., Kinne, S., Kloster, S., Vignati, E., Wilson, J., Ganzeveld, L., Tegen, I., Werner, M., Balkanski, Y., Schulz, M., Boucher, O., Minikin, A. and Petzold, A.: The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1125-1156, 2005.

Vavrus, S., Waliser, D., Schweiger, A., and Francis, J.: Simulations of 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount in the global climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4, Clim. Dyn., 33, 1099-1115, 2009.

Vignati, E., Karl, M., Krol, M:, Wilson, J., Stier, P., and Cavalli, E.: Sources of uncertainties in modeling black carbon at the global scale, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2595-2611, 2010.

Wang, C., J.J. Corbett, and J. Firestone, Improving Spatial Representation of Global Ship Emissions Inventories, Environmental Science & Technology, Web Release Date: 01-Dec-2007;(Article) DOI: 10.1021/es0700799, 2007.

Warren, S., and W. Wiscombe: A model for the spectral albedo of snow. II: Snow containing atmospheric aerosols, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2734– 2745, 1980.

Yang, M., Howell, S. G., Zhuang, J., and Huebert, B. J.: Attribution of aerosol light absorption to black carbon, brown carbon, and dust in China – interpretations of of atmospheric measurements during EAST-AIRE, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2035-2050, 2009.

Zhang, K., O’Donnell, D., Kazil, J., Stier, P., Kinne, S., Lohmann, U., Ferrachat, S., Croft, B., Quaas, J., Wan, H., Rast, S., and Feichter, J.: The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: sensitivity to improvements in process representations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8911-8949, doi:10.5194/acp-12-8911-2012, 2012.

Zhang, R., Khalizov A.F., Pagels J., Zhang D., Xue H., and McMurry P.H.: Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105, 10, 291–10, 296, 2008.

Zhou, C., Penner, J. E., Flanner, M. G., Bisiaux, M. M., Edwards, R., and McConnell, J. R.: Transport of black carbon to polar regions: Sensitivity and forcing by black carbon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L22804, doi:10.1029/2012GL053388, 2012.

logos of organizations involved in this MACEB project